Islam is the path of peace and justice. This provision of life is a unique law of justice and equality. The need for justice in all spheres of life, from the individual to the family, society, and state, is immeasurable. Therefore, the great ideals of Islam teach us to follow the path of honesty, justice, and truth in every phase of our life. The concept of justice in Islam is very clear and far-reaching. It is a fundamental and obligatory provision in the Concept of Islam.
The Concept of Justice in Islam
Justice is a very important element in all aspects of a person’s life. It is an important principle in the personal, social, and state life of human beings that dictates its availability and the ratio of good and evil. Establishing proper justice and fairness in individual, social, and state life by ignoring general discrimination, nepotism, or corruption is the name of justice. Any influence of love, enmity, or descent does not have any place in the ideal of justice in Islam.
Justice is one of the most emphasized moral and social issues in the Qur’anic call and teachings of Islam in establishing peace in life. In fact, justice in Islam is a special form of honesty and truthfulness. It means ensuring impartial and fair treatment to everyone on the stage of judgment. In fact, everyone has their own rights in social life. Therefore, justice in Islam is the right and proper principle for ensuring human rights according to the law of Allah.
The Principle of Justice in Islam
Adopting the path of justice in all situations of personal life is an essential demand of Islamic ideals. Therefore, the principle of justice in Islam is to follow Islamic ideals. Just as the principles of justice in personal life are directed by Allah Ta’ala, the judicial principles at the state level are also clear in Islam and guided by the Qur’an and Sunnah. Therefore, just as a person should follow the path of justice with his relatives, neighbors, and others, it is the responsibility of the head of state to establish justice for all. And the best and only principle acceptable in all these cases is adherence to Islamic law.
However, the principles of justice in Islam are the laws and indications given by the Almighty Allah. Because He is the greatest and best judge of all judges. That’s why the ideal of Islam forbids following the whims of the judicial person in establishing justice for people. The Qur’an states,
“ And I have sent down to you (O Muhammad SAW) the book (this Qur’an) in truth, confirming the scripture that came before it and trustworthy in highness and witness over old Scriptures. So, judge between them by what Allah has revealed. And follow not their vain desires, diverging away from the truth that has come to you. To each of you, I have prescribed a law and a clear way.” – Surah Al-Maidah:48
Importance of justice in Islam
Importance of fairness and justice is essential in all aspects of life. Because, without justice, peace, prosperity, security, and human values cannot be established in any field of human life. The backbone of a good society is strong justice. There is no substitute for justice to maintain peace, order, and stability in a civilized society.
All the management of the whole world depends on righteousness. A nation and society that does not have justice will be deprived of the mercy and grace of Allah Ta’ala. And its consequences will impact badly for the entire world. So, the concept of justice in Islam belongs to the following important issues.
Justice is an Obligatory Order
Almighty Allah has created everything in the universe under proper rules. Everything in the universe is so orderly because everything runs under beautiful and just rules. Mankind as the best creature of creation is not out of that rule. And so, He has imposed the law of justice upon mankind to maintain their life in proper order. The establishment of justice in human life is the obligatory command of Allah, the Almighty. It is obligatory worship in the concept of Islam. In the Holy Qur’an, Allah says-
” Surely Allah commands justice and good behavior.” -Surah An-Nahl: 90
“ O you who believe, be steadfast in justice and be supporters of justice and bearers of truth for the sake of Allah” -Surah An-Nisa:135
Justice is a Right for All
The concept of justice in Islam is a name of an essential right in the life of every human being. The overall security and prosperity of human life are ensured by gaining this right of justice. that’s why the great ideology of Islam plays an important and strong role to establish justice in our overall life. In fact, Islam commands us to remain with justice in every term of our life. In this regard, the Holy Qur’an has stated-
“ Indeed I have sent My messengers with clear instructions. And I have sent down with them the Book (of guidance) and the word of justice so that people can take just measures towards themselves.” -Surah Hadid: verse 25
Justice Ensures a Peaceful and Safe Life for All
The importance of justice in the overall life of people is immense. Through justice, safe and peaceful life for people is ensured. People get the guarantee of their personal, family, social, and state rights. Moreover, the principle of justice in Islam implements the provision of proper punishment against all crimes that cause unrest in society. Fear of justice makes criminals face accountability and punishment for their actions. So, in this way, Justice eradicates all types of crime from society. As a result, people get security for their life and property. Justice provides equity among all which is very necessary to establish peace in life. And thus society, as well as a state, becomes peaceful.
“ And eat up not one another’s property unjustly” – Surah Al-Baqarah: 188
Hold balance with justice (giving everyone his due avoiding extremes). Do not make the balance deficient.” -Surah Ar-Rahman: 09
Justice is Nearer to Piety and Taqwa
Humans are naturally vulnerable to kinship, wealth, influence, power, etc. And for this reason, taking the path of justice with everyone is a very difficult task. It is possible to ignore all these weaknesses and establish justice only if there is a lot of fear towards the great creator. Therefore, justice is closer to fear of Allah. The Qur’an says:
” O, believers! Be steadfast in bearing witness to Allah, never let the hatred of any community induce you to abandon justice, do justice, it is nearer to piety and fear of Allah, surely Allah is aware of what you do.” Surah Al-Maida: 8
The Order of Justice is Universal and Eternal
The law of justice is not limited to any particular community. Rather, it is a commandment binding on all people of all ages. That’s why the society in which justice and ideals have been ignored has plunged into the darkness of anarchy in all ages. Therefore, we see that in the Holy Qur’an, the Great Lord, while discussing the prophets of different communities of different ages, ordered them to establish justice among themselves.
“ Indeed I have sent my Messengers with clear proofs, and revealed with them the scripture and the balance (justice) that mankind may keep up Justice.” – Surah Al-Hadid: 25
“ O, David! I have made you a representative on earth. So, do justice between people and do not follow whims, for this will lead you astray from the path of Allah.” – Surah As-Saad:26
Obstacles to Justice
It is not possible to establish justice in a society devoid of fair rules and ethics. Because society is holding on to the surface of injustice, tyranny, nepotism, corruption, and discrimination, that community can never ensure justice. Therefore, nepotism, corruption, discrimination, and terrorism are major obstacles to the establishment of justice. Besides, it is absolutely meaningless to expect justice in a society devoid of honesty and justice. As long as the dire crises of injustice, lawlessness, and misrule remain in our community, we will not be able to establish justice. Therefore, in order to establish justice, there is no alternative except to uproot these crises and reform this society with justice.
Islam in Uprooting These Obstacles
Islam in Nepotism
Nepotism has no place in Islam. A Muslim leads his life with the great goal of establishing the eternal path of truth and justice. And if you have to stand against your father, mother, brother, sister, wife, child, or any other relative to establish justice, then you have to do it. This is the ideology and teaching of justice in Islam. However, nepotism has now become an epidemic issue in almost every society throughout the world. People are preferring their own people in court, administration, politics, and social facilities. As a result, proper people are deprived of justice. But the principle of justice in Islam inspires us to avoid nepotism while we stand for judgment.
” When you have to say something or settle a (disputing) matter, then do justice even if (the disputing party) is a close relative of yours.” -Surah Al-An’am: 152
“ O you who believe, be steadfast in justice and be supporters of justice and bearers of truth for the sake of Allah, even if (that true witness and righteousness) goes against you or against your parents and other relatives.” -Surah An-Nisa: 135
Islam in Corruption
Islam is a unique reservoir of fair principles and good ideals. Throughout the ages, the prophets (PBUT) have taught justice and principles to the misguided people of the world. Hence, Islam’s injunction against corruption and vice is very strict. The great teaching of Islam instructs us to live a life free from corruption.
“ If you (in judging or testifying in the context of someone’s kinship or poverty-wealth) manipulate or cheat or avoid speaking justly, then know for sure that Allah is fully aware of your actions.” Surah An-Nisa: 135
“ And eat up not one another’s property unjustly, nor give bribery to the rulers that you may knowingly eat up a part of the property of others corruptly.” – Surah Al-Baqarah: 188
Islam in Discrimination
The judicial system of the present society is very deplorable and fragile. Here judgment is made considering the accused’s financial and social influence and prestige. Gender, race, color, religion, and financial disparities greatly influence judicial outcomes. Hence, people are deprived of justice. Islam is a religion of equality. There is no racism, division, or inequality. Therefore, the law of Islam runs according to its own rules for men and women, rich and poor, high and low, or kings and subjects. Islam completely prohibits Any form of discrimination. However, one of the ideals of justice in Islam is to eradicate all forms of discrimination to establish justice. Let’s see some narrations from the Hadith in this regard.
The beloved Prophet (PBUH) said,
“ Whoever has two wives and if he does not maintain justice between them, he will appear on the Day of Resurrection with one side of his body paralyzed.” – Tirmidhi: 1141
“ Arabs have no superiority over non-Arabs and nor-Arabs have no superiority over Arabs. The whites have no superiority over the blacks and the blacks have no superiority over the whites except for Taqwa.” – Musnad Ahmad: 23489
Islam in Terrorism
Terrorism creates obstacles to the establishment of justice in society. It also plays a role in creating social chaos and anarchy. Today, judicial officers are often influenced by criminals or threatened by terrorists to deliver judgments. So, the real criminals remain beyond the reach of the law. This creates an opportunity to increase the level of crime in society. On the other hand, victims of injustice and oppression are deprived of proper justice. However, since justice in Islam is a fundamental right for everyone, Islam’s position is very strict against terrorism in order to establish justice. In the Holy Qur’an, Allah says-
“Do not create anarchy (by terror) on the world” – Surah Al-Araf: 56
“Be gracious, as Allah has graciously bestowed upon you, and do not seek to cause wantonness, terror in the world. Surely Allah does not like those who create mischief and terror.” -Surah Al-Qasas: 77
Muhammad (PBUH) in Justice
One of the main tasks of the prophet Muhammad (PBUH) was to establish a peaceful society based on justice and fairness in the light of Allah’s law. The great ideal of the Messenger (PBUH) in justice gives us a clear idea about justice in Islam. According to the instructions of Allah SWT, He set a shining example of social justice. He established a peaceful society by establishing the sovereignty of Allah, equitable distribution of wealth, ensuring the security of life, wealth, and honor, and establishing mutual love and brotherhood among all members of the society. In the Holy Qur’an, Allah the Almighty has commanded Him to establish justice among the people.
“Say (O Muhammad SAW), My Lord has commanded me to do justice” (Surah A’raf: 29).
“And if you judge, judge with justice between them. Verily, Allah loves those who act justly.” – Surah Al-Maidah: 42
By establishing social justice, He established a peaceful society the example of which is rare in the history of the world. He was determined to uphold justice and was uncompromising towards wrongdoers. He has established a unique example of justice in Islam for all, be it his own or others, rich or poor, strong or weak. Therefore, millions of non-Muslims came under the cool shade of Islam, impressed by His righteousness. He implements the provisions of the Shariah in justice. Because this principle of justice in Islam was fixed by the greatest Almighty Himself.
“And I have sent down to you (O Muhammad SAW) the book (this Qur’an) in truth, confirming the scripture that came before it and trustworthy in highness and witness over old Scriptures. So, judge between them by what Allah has revealed.” -Surah Al Maidah: 48
The Companions of the Prophet (PBUH) in Justice
Judiciary is established to establish justice in the state in the age of Khulafaye Rashedun. By establishing this department, the main objective was to establish fairness and justice in society, to make decisions on the basis of equality for all, whether rich or poor, weak or strong. That era is undoubtedly a clear example of justice in Islam. The Islamic State of Khulafaye Rashedar era established equal rights for all citizens.
After the death of the Messenger (PBUH), the Caliphs were elected His close companions. The Caliph also had to stand in court to be tried in the system of justice in Islam. When the armor of Hazrat Ali RA was lost, he accused a certain person and presented the trial in court. He lost the trial because the trial witness was not fair according to the principle of justice in Islam. However, he was the ruler. During the reign of Hazrat Umar, his own son drank alcohol. For that crime, he tried him properly. Thus Hazrat Abu Bakr RA, Hazrat Uthman RA, and later other Sahabi rulers also followed the Islamic principle of justice.
The Reward of Justice
In the context of justice in Islam, the reward for following the path of righteousness is honorable in both this world and the hereafter. Throughout the ages, righteous people like Hazrat Umar have been immortalized in history. And in the Hereafter is the highest honor for those who were steadfast in justice in their life. On the authority of Abdullah Ibn Amr (RA), the Prophet (PBUH) said,
” The judges (on the Day of Judgement) will be seated on the right-hand side of the Most Merciful Lord in the pulpit of light before Allah Ta’ala – and both of His hands are His right hands (i.e. equally exalted) – those who In governing, they do justice to their family members and the duties assigned to them.” (Muslim: 1827)
On the authority of Abu Huraira (RA), Rasulullah (SAW) said, ” On the day when there will be no shadow left except for the shadow of Allah, Allah will shade seven people.” One is a righteous king.’ (Bukhari: 660)
On the other hand, there is a warning of punishment in the Hereafter for a tyrant, a dictator. And great calamity may come down in his worldly life also. The messenger (PBUH) said,
” If a responsible person is entrusted with the responsibility of the Muslim community and dies in the condition that he was a traitor, then Allah will forbid Paradise for him.” (Bukhari: 7151)
If we want to establish peace in the modern world, we must look to the ideology of justice in Islam and learn from it and implement it. Otherwise, establishing real peace through man-made doctrines is never possible. It is the constitutional duty of the state to stop extrajudicial killings, terrorism, corruption, discrimination, murders, and disappearances and to establish rule of law and justice in order to protect human rights. Therefore, there is no alternative to reconstructing society through the principle of justice in Islam to make human life safe and peaceful. Because the law of judgment of the Almighty Creator is the best law.
“ Do they seek the judgment of ignorance? And who is better in judgment than Allah for a people who have firm faith? – Surah Al-Maidah: 50